Summary of KDC results 2020

What did KDC achieve in 2020? The results at a glance.


In 2020…

… we worked on 11 different projects.

… we finished 9 projects, the remaining 2 studies started in 2020 will be completed in 2021.

… 9 students conducted innovative research within the Centre of Excellence. Five of them were master students who graduated at the Aerospace Engineering faculty at the TU Delft. The other four students graduated from the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences.


The programme of 2020 is divided in different clusters. These clusters have been projected on a horizontal plane indicating for which parts of the Airport/Airspace system the research areas are applicable. These are visualized in the figure below.



Results KDC projects

The projects finished in 2020 range from innovations in airspace design to airport capacity and environmental sustainability. All projects have contributed significantly to the development of Mainport Schiphol.


CCO / High altitude SIDs

This research was focused on the optimisation of climb profiles for departing aircraft. Climb profiles have been obtained that can be flown by 95 percent of the aircraft. This can support the development of the new TMA concept that is based on 3D seperated fixed arrival and departure routes. Design choices for departure profiles have been analysed on both capacity and noise.


Night-time CDAs (FMS ETA data-analysis KLM)

The night-time CDA study has analysed the feasibility of using estimated arrival times calculated by the flight deck to improve the planning for arrival sequencing. This data can potentially be used to synchronise traffic far out in order to enable continuous descend approaches (CDA).


BC Optimising preferred use of Schiphol runways through flexible ILS maintenance (OPUS)

KDC has researched the feasibility of innovative technologies to monitor  Instrument Landing System (ILS) signals. These technologies can reduce the number of ILS signal inspections by conventional means which are time consuming and occupy the runway.  A flexible planning for ILS ground inspections at Schiphol Airport will be possible which reduces the operational runway downtime due to the inspections. This business case proves innovations for the airport capacity at Mainport Schiphol.


RECAT-EU for departures

RECAT-EU is the European recategorization of Wake Turbulence Categories. This research estimated the expected increase in departure capacity for Schiphol as a result of RECAT-EU. The estimation was based on an analysis of aspects that influence the departure capacity regarding RECAT-EU versus the current ICAO WTC-separation criteria. In this research, limitations have been considered related to runway usage and SID design, which ensures the results are a realistic representation of the expected benefits.


Runway Sequence Bays

This project is a business case study for the introduction of Runway Sequence Bays to the Schiphol runways. A runway Sequence Bay is a broader runway entry such that aircraft can line up side-by-side on the runway head. Effects on runway capacity and noise distribution profiles have been examined. This study shows potential innovations in the domain of environmental sustainability as well as capacity management. A potential improvement that can benefit the development of Mainport Schiphol.


Optimize ground movements in relation to taxiway renovation

The target of this study was to gain more insight in the operational effects of different strategic and tactic taxiway maintenance scenario’s. This has been approached by the development of a prototype planning tool for taxiway maintenance based on simulations.


Multi-Airport Concept/TMA

KDC has researched the strategic, tactic and pre-tactic solutions for multi-airport operations. In this research, development scenarios for the airports Schiphol, Rotterdam, Lelystad and Eindhoven have been taken into account. The most feasible solutions have been incorporated into the so-called Multi-Airport Concept. The target of this concept is to mitigate peak loads of the Dutch airspace, primarily for Area Control (ACC).


Transition to high capacity fixed arrival routes

The current Air Traffic Management system is based on radar vectoring. However a transition should be made to fixed arrival routes which can maintain peak capacity. This study has tailored an advisory implementation strategy for the transition to high capacity fixed arrival routes.


ASAS Interval Management Business Case

A business case study that supports the Dutch aviation industry in the decision making process for the realization of Interval Management. The study has examined the benefits for airspace users in terms of capacity and reductions of fuel consumptions and emissions. Both costs and benefits have been taken into account.


Studies of the 2020 program that will be finished in 2021

Future runway use

The development of a future proof concept for Schiphol’s runway use. This concept should ensure stable airport operations within the boundaries of environmental regulations whilst supporting the hub-function of Schiphol.


Schiphol Airport Operations Centre (APOC)

This research will describe the decision-making model needed to decide upon measures that will be made in the APOC. This model will form a methodology to decide on bottlenecks, capacity and demand measures that arise from D-3 onwards.


Results KDC – Centre of Excellence

Through the Center of Excellence (CoE) KDC builds its cooperation with its research partners; universities and colleges. A collaboration has been established between the Technical University (TU) Delft and the  Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences Aviation Academy. These two organizations are collaborating closely with KDC, developing applied research to strategical issues of each partner. Master & Bachelor students get the chance to develop their thesis in close collaboration with industry partners, and to contribute to the efficiency and sustainability of Schiphol Mainport.


Results of the students at the Technical University Delft

Wind and Trajectory Uncertainty in a 4D Trajectory Management Interface

Study towards a 4D trajectory ATM system. The research included a decision support interface that visualises possible conflicts based on 4D trajectories with wind and trajectory uncertainty incorporated, providing a realistic TBO controller support system.

by Matthijs Ottenhoff


Aircraft noise model validation using noise measurement feedback

This study aimed towards validating the currently used aircraft noise model by using noise measurement data taken around the airport. This validation strengthens the scientific foundation of the model and is expected to increase transparency in how noise calculations are performed.

by Max


Priority-based flight scheduling in the tactical phase

An investigation of a novel model tasked with the Arrival Sequencing and Scheduling of flights considering (airline) priority criteria. This model makes smarter use of the available infrastructure in order to increase capacity and decrease delay (costs), while maintaining fairness and equality between stakeholders.

by Robin Vervaat


Coordinated Arrival and Departure Management for Dependent Runway Operations

This research aimed to increase runway configuration capacity at airports that experience interference between arrival and departure capacity due to the use of dependent arrival and departure runways by developing and exploring multiple concepts for a coordination mechanism between Arrival and Departure Management.

by Jeanette Derks


Results of the students at the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences

Improving the outbound planning process at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

Improving the outbound planning process of Schiphol Airport by investigating the frequency, availability and accuracy of Estimate Landing Time (ELDT) data, as well as researching the ELDT data of the new LVNL arrival management system.

by Thijs Scheffers


Reducing the fluctuations on the outbound planning at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

The outbound planning  is fluctuating because of frequent updates of the Target Off-Blocks Time (TOBT).  To reduce the occurrence of frequent TOBT updates, different business rules have been analysed for the auto-TOBT update mechanism.

by Marc Out


Impact of the fleet mix on the outbound capacity at Schiphol Airport

An outbound phase analysis based on the A-CDM principle to give insight in the behaviour of aircraft types classified by wake turbulence categories. The analysis indicates possible bottlenecks in actual runway capacity with respect to declared capacity.

by Ashley Scheenloop


Analysing inbound sources of information to improve the predictability and accuracy of the landing times

A review of current business rules for prioritizing datasources that are used to predict landing times. This review is supported by analyzing the quality and accuracy of the data sources, and how flight characteristics or procedures can influence the accuracy of the ELDT.

by Bas Timmer