Max (MSc) – Aircraft noise model validation using noise measurment feedback
One of the current factors limiting the growth of the aviation industry in the Netherlands is the relationship between the aviation sector and local communities around airports. Aircraft noise production is one of the main causes of nuisance in residential areas reported by RIVM. It is therefore, for the aviation industry as a whole, of great importance to gain a better understanding of the methodology of aircraft noise modelling and make improvements on this modelling process if deficiencies in the current model are detected. The validation of the aircraft noise model, using noise measurements taken around the airport, is crucial for the scientific foundation of the model. This scientific foundation is expected to increase the transparency in how noise calculations are performed, which increases community trust in the aviation industry as a whole.
Thijs Scheffers (BSc) – Validating air traffic systems of the LVNL in the arrival process
Since 13 November 2018, there has been a new arrival manager system at Schiphol in use, called ASAP. It replaces the old arrival system, called Inbound Planning (IBP). LVNL has got two systems to determine the estimated landing time (ELDT), called ASAP and AAA. They start determining the ELDT for all inbound flights approximately 3 hours before expected landing. The ELDTs generated by AAA are send to the Central Information System Schiphol (CISS) of Schiphol. However, the ELDTs generated by ASAP are only used internally by the LVNL. Therefore, due to the change on the input data set source and the moment of reception, a comparative analysis is needed understand the quality of each data set, the predictability and its benefits of use for calculating the ELDT on a more accurate manner.
Christophe Vakaet (MSc) – development of a Dynamic Taxi-time system
Ground control uses the Departure Sequence Planner (DSP) to optimally plan departures within the operational constraints. The DSP uses an estimated Variable Taxi Time (VTT) to calculate an aircraft’s Target Take-Off Time (TTOT). If the VTT is underestimated flights will not make the determined TTOT, while an overestimation requires the air traffic controller to tactically hold an aircraft. These consequences result in delays, capacity losses, additional workload, and uncertainty. This uncertainty inhibits further operational optimizations. The VTT is currently predicted based on the average taxi times for different gate-runway combinations, wake turbulence categories, deicing procedure, and simplified runway configuration. The goal of this project is to improve VTT predictions by employing machine learning techniques and additional data sources such as traffic density, weather, aircraft type, and more.
Robin Vervaat (MSc) – Priority-based flight scheduling in the tactical phase
Years of growth in air travel have meant that, as usage is nearing current capacity, delays are becoming virtually inevitable for air carriers operating in our airspace. Flight delays have a significant impact on airport and airline operations, as well as their cost. As such, tactical planning of the flights has become increasingly important, especially for a hub-operator with many connecting passengers. In collaboration with LVNL, KLM and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, a novel model is being investigated tasked with the Arrival Sequencing and Scheduling of flights considering (airline) priority criteria. Smarter use is to be made of the available infrastructure in order to increase capacity and decrease delay (costs), however, fairness and equality between stakeholders will still need to be upheld.
Jeanette Derks (MSc) – Exploring Concepts for Coordinated Arrival- and Departure Management
The foreseen increase in air traffic movements in combination with eased separation minima between aircraft, redefined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in 2015, is expected to emphasize current runway dependencies at airports even further. As the number of aircraft in vicinity of an airport will increase, conflicting flight paths between arriving aircraft and departing aircraft will become a bigger safety hazard and will affect the efficiency and safety of both the arrival- and departure traffic flow. Airports that rely on dependent runways in their daily operation await serious (surface-) congestion problems if no coordination between arrival and departure management will be initiated soon. It is clear that systematic approaches are needed for the coordination between arrivals and departures. Therefore, this research aims to increase runway configuration capacity at airports that experience interference between arrival- and departure capacity due to the use of dependent arrival- and departure runways by developing and exploring multiple concepts for coordinated Arrival- and Departure Management.
Bart Bouwels (MSc) – Air Traffic Management Concept for Off-Idle Continuous Descent Operations at Schiphol
Due to the continued growth of the aviation industry, emission and noise production are at an all-time high. In order to reduce this, conventional approaches could be replaced by continuous descent approaches (CDA). These eliminate all level segments, greatly reducing the average thrust setting, resulting in large reductions in noise and emission production. The problem with almost all CDA procedures is that it makes it much more difficult to predict the future position of an aircraft since it flies its own optimal descent profile, with zero thrust. This results in a need for more separation, greatly reducing the airport capacity. This can largely be solved by using a fixed, constant descent angle for all aircraft. Assessing the robustness of such a concept for a high capacity airport is therefore an important stepping stone towards actual implementation.
Ashley Scheenloop (BSc)- Improvement of the outbound capacity at Schiphol airport by looking at the departure phase of the flight.
With the future growth in flight movements in the aviation sector, efficient use of the airport resources are getting more and more important. This since airside congestion and delays are getting more frequent. It is seen that the declared runway capacity at Schiphol airport is not reached during the outbound peaks. This capacity is determined for each season and is based on: The 500,00 maximum flight movements the airport is allowed according to governmental laws, and the number of flight movements during environmental circumstances and corresponding runway combinations. In addition, the environmental and the operational capacity is taken into account. To make optimal use of the available capacity it is important to understand the flight characteristics that influence the outbound capacity. This is done by analysing the outbound phase of the flight and finding the bottleneck as to why the declared capacity is not reached.
Marc Out (BSc) – Enhancing predictability of the TOBT by evaluation of its current business rules
The auto-TOBT mechanism updates the Target Off-Blocks Time (TOBT) automatically when the Estimated In-Blocks Time (EIBT) changes and the TOBT is later than the Scheduled Off-Blocks Time (SOBT). This mechanism starts once the landing runway is assigned and shared with the sector and stops at the Actual In-Blocks Time or when the TOBT is manually adjusted by the ground handler. The outbound flight (performed by same inbound aircraft), will be placed in a departure sequence based on the output of the Collaborative Pre-departure Sequence Planner (CPDSP). The TOBT is the input for the CPDSP and with each update the sequence changes. This creates a dynamic outbound planning and increases the risks to have regulated flights (CTOT). Reducing the dynamical outbound planning will be done by analyzing different business rules for the auto-TOBT mechanism to create a more stable and predictable TOBT in advance.
Bas Timmer (BSc) – Analysing inbound sources of information to improve the predictability and accuracy of the landing times
With the growing aviation industry in Europe, efficient use of the inbound capacity becomes even more important. One of the determining factors in capacity is the ability of accurately predict the landing time of aircraft. LVNL systems AAA and ASAP generate their inbound sequence planning based on Estimated Landing Times (ELDT) calculated from a variety of data sources. When CDM was implemented, business rules were put in place to prioritize certain data sources above another based on quality and accuracy. Nowadays, the quality and accuracy of these sources are thought to be different. Reviewing the current business rules is done by analyzing the quality and accuracy of the data sources, and how flight characteristics or procedures can influence the accuracy of the ELDT.